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How to make potatoes sprout faster before planting

How to make potatoes sprout faster before planting



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Growing crops on a personal plot has a large number of nuances that are not recommended to be forgotten. Germination of potatoes is a necessary measure with which it will be possible to increase the yield several times. There are many methods for sprouting potato tubers. Each has its own pros and cons.

Why do you need to sprout potatoes?

When potatoes are planted, then at this moment they are already growing, regardless of whether the root crop is in the soil. Potato seedlings grow faster after germination.

Also, during germination, the following risks can be prevented:

  • The presence of rotten, moldy or gnawed root crops in seed potatoes. Before the process, the tubers are inspected in advance and discarded unsuitable for planting.
  • Planting small tubers in the soil, the mass of which does not exceed 30 g.
  • Use irregularly shaped roots. Such tubers rarely produce a normal crop, so it is not recommended to use them for germination.

Tubers unprepared for the summer cottage season sprout within 10-15 days, and the sprouts appear after another 12-20 days. The whole process takes more than a month. To reduce it, you need to germinate potatoes.

Basic rules for germination

Planting unprepared potatoes is possible even if the soil has not warmed up to +10 degrees. In this case, experienced summer residents are advised to cover the planting with non-woven material at night. Potato roots begin to sprout actively at soil temperatures of +7 degrees. As many gardeners note, sprouts begin to appear if the temperature reaches +12 about 23 days after planting.

If there are few potatoes, then before planting you need to remove all weak and frail sprouts and leave 2-3 strong ones. If the tubers are large in size, then they are cut into several parts so that each has a sprout.

The sprouts should not be too long. Even if the sprouts are healthy, but too long they are very fragile and can break during planting. The sprouts should be short and thick. Then they will calmly transfer the transportation and break it during disembarkation.

When the tips of the sprouts begin to darken, this signals that the room in which they are sprouting is considered to be too cold.

Cut pieces are planted in the soil, on each of which eyes should be located. Oddly enough, a stronger root system is formed on small pieces and more root crops are formed. You don't need to leave more than two eyes. Stems from such root crops will grow more actively and there will be more of them, but they lack nutrients and sun, so the yield of such bushes is low.

A day before planting, each part is covered with wood ash and left to dry.

Harvesting seed tubers

Harvesting seed tubers for cultivation on a potato plot is a crucial moment on which the entire crop depends. At this stage, the foundation for yields is laid. Root crops begin to prepare for the season in the fall after harvesting from the site. The largest and healthiest vegetables are selected and placed separately from other root crops. In the spring, preparation continues and includes the selection of moldy, gnawed or blackened tubers. Then comes the germination of the sprouts and the planting itself.

Which tubers to choose?

Potato tubers for planting should only be healthy. Potatoes with mold, black spots and any other lesions are not recommended for planting. Also, do not choose too large root crops. It is advisable to give preference to medium-sized potatoes with a dense skin and small eyes.

The selected potatoes are placed in a boric acid solution for disinfection and stored separately from the entire crop. It is useful to place fruits in manure for several days.

You should not choose too small fruits. Stems grow out of them a little, and they practically do not give a harvest. The disadvantage of large root crops is the fact that the aboveground part (leaves and stems) develops more actively than the underground part (tubers and root system). As a result, it turns out that the rhizome cannot provide a sufficient amount of nutrients to the stems and from this they begin to turn yellow and wilt.

It is recommended to plant small, medium and large potatoes separately from each other and mark where what grows. This is due to the fact that the care for them will be different. An effective method for growing a rich harvest is buying seed in the fall. But in this case, carefully examine them before purchasing tubers. Elite potato varieties give a good harvest for about three years. Such varieties are practically not susceptible to the development of diseases. Buying a variety should be based on your own observations of the potatoes during the growing season. And it is recommended to purchase only those varieties that grow best on the site.

Greening

A simple and popular way of sprouting potatoes is pre-greening. The advantage of this method is also the fact that green tubers do not attract rodents due to the high content of corned beef (a poisonous substance that can cause poisoning) in them. These tubers should not be eaten, but they are great for planting in the ground. This method will add another 20% to the entire crop.

Potato tubers are an underground part of the stem, which, due to the fact that it is not exposed to sunlight, could not produce corned beef. When potatoes are in the sun, chlorophyll begins to be actively produced, and the peel with pulp acquires a green tint.

In addition to corned beef, green potatoes accumulate nicotine and other alkaloids dangerous to human life. But for cultivation, it is ideal. In order for the tubers to acquire green shades in the sun, they need to be kept for 8-12 days. But to obtain the richest harvest, greening is combined with germination of sprouts. There are many methods for sprouting root crops. Each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages.

When to get potatoes for germination and how long to germinate?

One of the important points in the cultivation of an agricultural crop is to determine the timing of germination. You need to know exactly when to get the potatoes so that they are already prepared for the planting season. This mainly depends on the timing of the emergence of sprouts and the ripening of the crop.

30–35 days before planting in the ground, the seed tubers of the potato are taken out of the basement and begin to germinate. Early potatoes are obtained in early March. For the main plantings, the beginning of April is considered the optimal time.

Some gardeners are of the opinion that you need to get the seeds 1.5-2 months before planting. After the sprouts reach a length of 4–6 cm, they are carefully cut off at the very base and placed in a box or greenhouse with good soil.

How to prepare potatoes for germination?

It is not difficult to prepare seed potatoes for planting, if you adhere to some rules. For example, you can prepare an infusion of tansy, which accelerates the emergence of sprouts. 60 g of dry tansy herb is poured into 500 ml of boiling water. The infusion is left to cool completely, then poured into a solution for soaking potatoes. Through one bucket of such a solution, pass up to a centner of inoculum.

Moisture and high temperature stimulates the appearance of eyes.

So that the sprouts do not stretch too much, after 14 days they are placed in a cool place at a temperature of 8-10 degrees. The main thing is to make sure that the boxes are under open sunlight.

Germination methods

Potatoes can sprout quickly using a variety of methods. There are many ways to germinate potato eyes.

Germination in the light

Contrary to popular belief, little is required for seedlings to emerge. But it has to be. Subject to all factors, but in the absence of light, nothing will work. If it is not possible to use natural sunlight, artificial illumination in the form of lamps is suitable.

Spread the potatoes in a thin layer in wooden or plastic boxes. They can be stacked on top of each other. The walls of the boxes should not be solid, but with large holes. The top drawer is covered with gauze or any other thin material.

The optimum room temperature is 12-17 degrees. The light should not be direct, but diffused. To understand that root crops will have enough light in appearance. Under normal light conditions, the shoots are thick and small. If there is a lack of light, they stretch and become thin.

In the dark

When it is not possible to germinate planting material indoors in the light, germinate in the dark. This method is less effective, since sunlight is required for the normal development of the shoots. But precisely observing the necessary conditions, it will be possible to get seedlings in the dark.

It is especially necessary to carefully monitor the temperature regime, otherwise the sprouts will begin to stretch. If this has already happened, then the temperature is lowered to 4-6 degrees overnight. If necessary, this is done during the day. At this temperature, the stems will not stop. Growing in the dark is 15–29 days at a humidity of 95%.

With feeding in boxes

Stages of sprouting potatoes with top dressing in a box:

  • A plastic bag is lined at the bottom of the box. Spread potatoes in 2 layers and cover it with humus, peat or sawdust. Several layers are needed.
  • Pour water over the potatoes. Sprouts should appear in a few weeks. They are watered with a mineral mixture for growth. Or wood ash diluted in a glass of water.
  • After a few days, pour the nutrient mixture again.
  • After a week, the roots are planted in open ground.

The germination of potatoes and the formation of tubers after planting after this method grows at times.

In plastic wrap

You can germinate tubers at home using plastic bags. Several holes are made in the bag for air circulation. Then they put potatoes in them and hang them in the sun. The bags are regularly turned over and the planting material is mixed in them. The main thing is that the sun's rays are not intense.

In a wet substrate

Sprouting potatoes in sawdust with the addition of peat is as follows:

  • Sawdust is poured into the bottom of the box.
  • Divide the seed potatoes into 1 layer.
  • Cover it with sawdust with the addition of peat and pour water over it.
  • The layer of sawdust and peat should be at least 3 cm.
  • The boxes are watered regularly and the air temperature is monitored, it should be within 15-17 degrees.

Germination is used in a wet substrate in the event that it is required to grow roots.

Combining sprouting with root sprouting

The combined method is considered one of the most effective. 40–45 days before the expected planting of potatoes, it is sorted out, spoiled tubers are thrown away. Then they are placed in boxes, left indoors.

After 25-30, the roots are taken out of the boxes, peat crumb is poured onto the bottom with a layer of 5 cm and then the potatoes are again laid out in 1-2 layers. Another layer of peat crumb is poured on top, about 5 cm. As the moisture evaporates, the peat pot is sprinkled with water.

On open air

Germination in the open air begins when the snow melts and the air temperature warms up to +12 degrees. The soil is covered with straw or sawdust, then the potatoes are laid out. Cover it with plastic wrap. The whole process takes from 7 days to a month. Putting manure under the straw will shorten the germination period.

In pots

Tubers are preliminarily placed in boxes with wet sawdust for 7 days. Then they are transplanted into clay pots with a special soil mixture. At night, the pots are taken out to the balcony so that the seeds get used to temperature changes.

Warming up and drying method

If you did not have time to germinate the potatoes on time, and the planting time is running out, the method of warming up and wilting is effective. The potatoes are laid out in 1 layer and left at a temperature of + 25-30 degrees. The germination rate of the eyes is from 7 to 14 days.

Seedling potatoes

Potato seedlings begin to grow a few weeks before planting in the ground. Prepared root vegetables are planted in pots or boxes with soil. Then they are placed in a greenhouse or greenhouse. It is necessary to plant seedlings after the soil and air have completely warmed up. The seedling method will allow you to dig up early young potatoes.

How to process before planting?

Treating potatoes before planting reduces the risk of disease and insects during the growth and formation stage of potato tubers.

Chemicals

The surface of the peel can contain a large number of fungi and bacteria. The processing time for potatoes depends on the preparations:

  • Planriz is used for spraying 1 week before planting seeds in the ground.
  • Albit just one day before planting.
  • Phytosporin is treated just before planting.

Among the drugs that have proven themselves well, there are:

  • Commander (used to protect plantings from insects, for example, the Colorado potato beetle. The chemical is toxic, so you need to use it with extreme caution).
  • Cruiser is another chemical that can help prevent insects and potato rotting. Used as a spray.
  • The substance Maxim is aimed at preventing the development of many diseases of agricultural crops (scab, phimosis, rhizoctoniae). They are sprayed with sown roots before planting in the ground.

The solution for processing can be prepared independently based on potassium permanganate. 1 g of potassium permanganate is diluted in 1 liter of water and sprouted tubers are poured into it for 20-30 minutes. After that, the wet seeds are covered with wood ash.

Disinfection with copper sulfate helps prevent the appearance of fungal diseases on plantings. To prepare the solution, you will need 10 liters of water, 1 matchbox of vitriol and 2 g of potassium permanganate. All ingredients are mixed in a non-metallic bowl and the planting material is soaked for 1-3 minutes. Dry it before planting.

Folk remedies

Folk remedies are less effective than chemicals, but they are safer for humans. Under their influence, there is no accumulation of substances hazardous to human health. And when using folk recipes, additional protection is not required.

Potatoes are treated with wood ash diluted in water. To do this, you need to take 1 kg of ash and dilute it in 10 warm water. Before planting, the seed is dipped in the solution. And ash is poured into the bottom of the holes. Only after that do they start planting.

Do potatoes need to be washed before planting?

It is not necessary to rinse the potatoes from the ground with water before planting. It is better to treat the planting material with special disinfection solutions and growth stimulants. You can purchase substances for spraying in specialty shops for gardening or prepare yourself.

How to plant sprouted potatoes?

Germinated potatoes are planted in the same way as unprepared ones.The main thing is to ensure that the sprouts are not damaged during transportation and planting of tubers in the ground. The holes are dug to a depth of 20 cm.The distance between the holes must be at least 25 cm.

Tips from summer residents

To improve the harvest, you need to follow some tips from experienced summer residents:

  • Root crops are soaked in mineral solution for several hours. The procedure is carried out several hours before planting.
  • The day before planting, the planting material is treated with growth stimulants. They allow you to increase yields and accelerate germination of sprouts.
  • The tubers must be cut into several parts so that each of them has eyes. In this case, growth hormone is produced and the formation of roots is more active.
  • To retain moisture in the soil, the plantings are covered with mulch.
  • It is not recommended to plant small potatoes for harvest. In small potatoes, there are few eyes, and, accordingly, there will be fewer seedlings.
  • Only healthy planting material is used for cultivation. Spoiled and moldy root crops should be thrown away immediately.
  • After any treatment with liquid substances, the potatoes must be dried, otherwise it will begin to rot.

Do not assume that you will be able to grow a good harvest without prior preparation. Pre-germination and dressing of the tubers will help increase yields.


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